Low back pain: causes

Low back pain

Pain in the lower backis a common pain syndrome present in many pathologies.

Systemic diseases of not only the spine but also the internal organs.

Back pain has a different nature: pain and fever, which are often perceived as surprising.

As you know, any pain indicates problems in the body.

Therefore, back pain is a reason to see a neurologist immediately.

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system with low back pain

Spinal disease is characterized by limited mobility and chronic back pain.

The most common lumbar pain syndromes:

  • Lumbago or lumbago. . . The sharp pain starts suddenly. Muscle stiffness and tension last a long time. In addition to osteochondrosis, there may be pain due to dislocation of the discs in the lower back.
  • Radiculitis. . . Nerve roots in the spinal cord become inflamed. Pain syndrome generally does not start acutely and may be a sign of spinal tuberculosis or osteochondrosis.
  • Sciatica(sciatic nerve is compressed). Low back pain is paroxysmal and often spreads to the sacrum and the posterior surface of the lower extremities. It is observed in women due to inflammation of the appendages.

However, the most common pathologies accompanied by pain in the lower back:

  • Spondylosis. . . This is a thinning of the vertebrae in the lumbar region. At this time, the ligaments weaken, bone begins to grow, which narrows the spinal canal. Growths compress the nerve endings, causing numbness, weakness, and cramping pain in the legs. Often there is a displacement of the vertebrae and discs in this area, which leads to the development of pathologies of other vertebrae below. Bladder and rectal function may be impaired.
  • Lumbar osteochondrosis. . . The disease manifests itself by loosening of the joint tissue. Nerves and severe pain are involved in the pathogenesis because the nerve roots of the spinal cord are compressed.
  • Torn. . . The intervertebral cartilage protrudes, breaking its integrity and squeezing the nerve roots. Loses joint function. The pain often passes to the legs.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis. . . The joints responsible for the mobility of the spine are affected.
  • Stenosis. . . Chronic inflammation narrows the spinal canal and squeezes the nerves inside. Not only pain but also convulsions appear. Painful feelings disappear at rest, but are restored with any load.
  • Scoliosis. . . In severe cases, with muscle spasms and hernias, severe pain appears in the lower back.

Causes of pain are not always diseases of the musculoskeletal system. To check this, provocative tests are performed to determine the exact cause of back pain.

Other reasons

There is low back pain:

  • Mechanic. . . In the evening, after a hard day, it appears or intensifies. Decreases or disappears completely after rest. This pain is often observed in older people. It is caused by structural anomalies in the back.
  • Inflammatory. . . Morning stiffness is accompanied by painful sensations that disappear after taking light strength or anti-inflammatory drugs. The cause is thought to be inflammatory spondylopathy.

In addition to the main causes of pain in the lower back, there are alsosecondary factorsarises as a result of accompanying pathologies. These include:

Rachiocampsis: Failure of skeletal metabolic processes: Infectious diseases: Autoimmune pathologies:
  • Scoliosis.
  • Lordoz.
  • Kyphosis.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Hemochromatosis.
  • Osteomyelitis of the spine.
  • Epiduritis.
  • Tuberculous spondylitis.
  • Purulent disc.
  • Arthritis (rheumatoid).
  • Ankylosing spondylitis.
  • Reiter syndrome.

Other pathologies:

  • Malignant neoplasms near the spine.
  • Spinal cord injury.
  • Psychogenic or post-stroke pain.
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Low back pain is common during pregnancy and menstruation.
  • Inflammation of the ovaries.
  • Renal colic.
  • Sexually transmitted problems.

Related symptoms

It varies according to the severity of pain in the lower back:

  • sharp- has the character of shooting and arises suddenly;
  • chronic- The pain is dull and painful, can last for several months.

Often the pain appears periodically, that is, it takes a recurrent course.

Back pain is a sign of spinal diseases.

Certain types of pain are characteristic of a separate damage to the structure of the lumbar region:

  1. Local or local. . . This is due to damage to the joints, ligaments, musculoskeletal system. Such pain is clearly localized, mostly mild, but persistent. It changes when the position of the body changes.

  2. Reflex or reflex. . . It is divided into two types:

    • Pain is caused by diseases of the internal organs. It is given to the hips and thighs. Painful feelings are deep and painful. Even if it is calm, it does not go.
    • Pain syndrome causes damage to the sacrum. The pain is dull and lasts a long time. Gives to the groin and hips.
  3. Radicular pain. . . Occurs as a result of damage to the nerve roots of the spinal cord. The pain is very intense, spreading from the spine to the periphery. It is usually given to the feet and toes. Even the slightest tension is aggravated by coughing and sneezing.

  4. Fibromyalgia or muscle pain. . . Defensive muscle spasm. Occurs with many pathologies of the spine. Painful and even convulsive pain appears with prolonged muscle tension.

Treatment of low back pain

The method of relieving back pain is selected based on the causes and severity of the disease that causes the pain syndrome. Conservative treatment is usually prescribed, although surgery is not ruled out.

Symptomatic therapy

The following medications are used:

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs. . . Eliminates inflammation very effectively and relieves pain;
  • Analgesics;
  • Muscle relaxants;
  • Gels and ointments;
  • Compresses;
  • Drugs that reduce degenerative processesin cartilage tissue.

Sometimes medical blockades are prescribed. Painkillers are injected into the trigger points. The analgesic is usually injected into the epidural space of the spine.


An absolute indication for surgery is cauda equina syndrome, ie fecal and urinary incontinence, as well as incontinence in the perineal region.

If lower back pain persists for more than six months and is already beginning to radiate to the lower extremities, surgical treatment is required. However, before deciding on surgery, it is necessary to confirm the presence of a localized hernia. For this, neuroimaging studies are conducted.

Exercise therapy and massage

Therapeutic gymnastics is also considered a cure.Exercise strengthens the back muscles, increase blood circulation and increase muscle tone. Exercise therapy is designed for both therapeutic therapy and prevention of back pain. Of course, the exercises are selected individually, taking into account the severity of the pathology.

The most useful exercises that can be performed 10 times to prevent overwork can be identified.:

  • In a standing position, bend the body in all directions.
  • Separate your legs shoulder-width apart and rotate your body left and right.
  • Get up on all fours. Do the famous "Cat" exercise.
  • Lie on your back, bend your knees. Raise and lower the pelvis as the amplitude gradually increases.
  • Lie on your back, straighten your legs. Bend your legs, pull your knees to your chest.
  • Swing your legs on all fours.

Strengthens positive results from gymnasticsmass therapy. . . Improves blood circulation and can quickly relieve acute back pain if necessary. Massage exercises have a beneficial effect on the elasticity and resilience of the ligaments. Sometimes and only with the permission of a doctor, massage is allowed to be combined with a bath. However, this is forbidden in case of exacerbation of pain.


The procedures are highly effective and successfully relieve back pain.

Physiotherapy for low back pain

The following methods can be distinguished:

  • Use of ultrasound (phonophoresis). Reduces swelling and has an analgesic effect.
  • Electrophoresis with anesthetics and calcium.
  • Amplipulse therapy. Has a vascular-trophic and analgesic effect.
  • Electrical stimulation of muscles. Improves blood circulation and relaxes the muscular system.
  • Reflexology.
  • Paraffin treatment. Restores metabolic processes and improves lymph flow.
  • Mud and balneotherapy.

Procedures are strictly individualized based on clinical symptoms.

Use of folk remedies

Folk recipes with pain in the lumbar region significantly improve well-being. It is advisable to consult your doctor in advance to avoid harm to your health. There are many effective tools that can relieve pain (temporarily).

Popular compresses:

  1. Vinegar and honey are mixed in equal proportions. Place the resulting mixture on a cabbage leaf and then apply to the waist area, which should be wrapped in a warm cloth.
  2. Chop dried burdock leaves and pour boiling water over them. Gruel is applied to the sore spot.
  3. Soften boiled potatoes and mix with horseradish. Apply the compress to the lower back.
  4. Chopped onion is applied to the painful area.
  5. Mustard powder is diluted with warm water and spread on the lower back.


  1. Hot honey.
  2. Burdock or eucalyptus tincture.
  3. A blend of cologne, iodine, red pepper & valerian

Internal infusions:

  1. Add crushed sword root in 500 ml of vodka. It should be insisted for at least a month. Take one tablespoon three times a day.
  2. A handful of wheat is soaked overnight. In the morning, coriander is added and the mixture is boiled in a glass of milk until a thick consistency. It should be consumed twice a day.

Folk remedies are in addition to the main treatment. They significantly improve well-being and reduce pain.

The result

Back, back paincan appear for various reasons, including: osteochondrosis, spondylosis, hernia. There are other equally dangerous causes of pain syndrome - trauma, malignant neoplasms.

If the cause of back pain is known, it should be treated. However, it is better to pay attention to preventive measures to prevent skeletal destruction. Strict adherence to the recommendations of doctors will help to avoid unpleasant sensations in the lower back.

Therapeutic exercises should be performed regularly to strengthen the musculoskeletal system. It only takes 20 minutes.

Many people now "know" how to relieve back pain, but the basic rule must be understood: self-medication is strictly prohibited. Even with mild pain, it is best to see a doctor.