Back pain is one of the most common health problems. The causes of pain are different: from a simple physical load after a restless position of the body to serious disorders in the human body.
Types of painful feelings
Waist - The spine that starts at the ribs and ends at the tailbone. Low back pain can manifest itself in a variety of ways: acute or excruciating, painful or burning, concentrated, or spread throughout the back.
In terms of the duration of low back pain is divided into:
- associated with periodic, physical exertion, overload, physical characteristics or internal diseases;
- permanent or chronic caused by irreversible pathology in diseases of the musculoskeletal system or vascular diseases of the legs.
The latter type is often accompanied by inflammatory or degenerative processes in the bone or cartilage tissues, which do not heal completely, but can be reduced or stopped only for a short time.
Pain in the lumbar region is the result of a person's upright posture, which puts a heavy burden on his back. The spine is made up of bone tissue and is surrounded by nerve roots that signal pain.
If a person sits in one position for a long time, there is a "lumbago" that does not allow him to straighten when he gets up. This may be due to compressed nerve endings near the spine, the appearance of edema in the muscles, intervertebral discs or ligaments.
To diagnose the problem, it is necessary to undergo an external examination of the spine and additional examinations by a doctor:
- X-ray examination;
- computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The main reasons
Low back pain is divided into 2 groups according to its origin:
- first, functional changes in muscles, joints, discs, ligaments and tendons due to the development of pathologies in the area of the spine;
- secondary to spinal injuries, as well as various organ infections and diseases located in the pelvic region.
The most common causes of back pain are:
- Lumbaqo. It manifests itself with sudden sharp pain in the lumbar region due to pathological changes in the vertebrae.
- Osteochondrosis. These include a number of inflammatory or dystrophic diseases characterized by impaired elasticity and strength of the intervertebral discs, nerve damage, and loosening of the surface of bone and cartilage tissue. Dislocation of the intervertebral disc is one of the stages of osteochondrosis in which cartilage protrusion occurs.
- Sciatica. When the sciatic nerve is inflamed or compressed, the pain begins in the lower back and spreads to the back of one leg.
- Lumbar sciatica. Inflammation of the nerve endings can occur when bending, sneezing, or laughing, leading to loss of sensation and loss of movement.
- Scoliosis - is manifested by a curvature of the spine in one direction, asymmetry of shoulder height, distorted posture, the formation of ribs. The cause of the disease is a decrease in the function of skeletal muscles and bones.
- Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic disease characterized by loss of joint mobility due to proliferation of connective tissue in the lumbar region and other areas.
- Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammation of the joints, including the hip joints.
People who have been in an uncomfortable position for a long time (sitting at a computer or bent over in a garden bed) are more prone to back pain, which causes muscle spasms and muscle spasms.
Diseases of the internal organs can also cause back pain:
- most kidneys give painful sensations (pyelonephritis, kidney failure, stones, colic);
- diseases of the digestive system and gastrointestinal tract (cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, postoperative adhesions) - often manifested by pain in the lower back;
- if the lungs are affected (pneumonia), it is possible to feel pain in the lumbar region, especially when coughing;
- bone tuberculosis and other infections;
- benign or malignant tumors growing in the direction of the nerve fibers in the back.
Recurrent back pain can occur in men during strenuous physical activity, working in the cold, or in a strong squat.
In addition, pain is characteristic of some male diseases:
- with prostatitis rarely appears in the back, accompanied by general weakness and fever;
- with lumbar return with epididymitis (an inflammatory process in the epididymis) localized in the groin.
In women, low back pain can occur against the background of gynecological diseases or may accompany some physiological processes in the body:
- they begin in the lower abdomen with inflammation of the appendages (adnexitis) and then in the back;
- During pregnancy, the child suffers from back pain and under the pressure of the growing fetus (starting from the 5th month of pregnancy) can pass to the spine, manifesting itself in the danger of falling. cramps;
- During menopause, the pain changes localization, moving from the head to the chest or down, due to fluctuations in estrogen levels in the blood and circulatory disorders in the pelvic organs.
Women have back pain and increased suspicion. Those associated with stress are treated with psychological correction.
Pain relief methods
For low back pain, after clarifying the cause and determining the underlying disease, the neurologist prescribes painkillers in the form of ointments, tablets or injections. Their use can improve the patient's well-being to eliminate negative feelings and lead a normal life.
The main groups of painkillers:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in tablet form;
- steroid hormones;
- injections to relieve spasms and inflammation;
- muscle relaxants that help reduce skeletal muscle tone;
- chondroprotectors are used for spinal hernias;
- ointments, gels and candles. ;
- medical plasters and stickers.
Medications not only relieve pain, but also help to normalize blood circulation and restore nerve tissue.
All drugs have side effects and contraindications, so they should be used only after consulting a doctor.
Especially in severe cases, drugs that reduce the pain by affecting the nervous system are used. However, they can be addictive if taken for a long time.
After determining the cause of back pain, a comprehensive treatment of the underlying disease is carried out.
Alternative methods can be used with the permission of a doctor:
- therapeutic massage course;
- hand therapy, which should be performed only by highly qualified specialists to prevent complications;
- acupuncture (helps to relieve muscle tension and pain);
- physiotherapy exercises and yoga.
Folk recipes are also used to get rid of back pain:
- Tea made from maple and lingonberry leaves. The dry mixture is brewed with boiling water and drunk in small portions throughout the day.
- Butter ointment with the addition of chopped garlic cloves and ginger root. It should be applied to a painful area.
To prevent unpleasant pain in the lower back, you should follow the basic rules of prevention:
- sleeping on a semi-rigid mattress with proper physiological posture;
- when sitting in one position for a long time, do not stand up suddenly, you should take a break, warm up or exercise;
- avoid sudden movements and inclinations;
- Perform daily special gymnastic exercises to train all parts of the spine (only with a doctor's permission).